Passive Voice

A. Perhatikan:

  • Aktif :  Sayamemancing ikan.
  • Pasif :  Ikan dipancing oleh saya.

Dari kalimat aktif menjadi  kalimat pasif (passive voice), terjadi 3 perubahan:

  • Subyek menjadi obyek (pelaku)
  • Obyek menjadi subyek (penderita)
  • Kata kerja me- menjadi di-

Dalam bahasa Inggris, kata kerja di- dinyatakan dalam bentuk: be+Verb 3. Tambahkan ‘by’ jika obyek pelaku disebutkan.

Contoh untuk ‘simple present‘ dan ‘simple past‘:

***** Verb 1                           Verb 2                              Verb 3*****

  • do                                    did                                     done
  • make                              made                                 made
  • take                                took                                   taken
  • Active   : Roni takes my work.
  • Passive : My work is taken by Roni
  • Active   : She took your ruler.
  • Passive : Your ruler was taken by her.

Jika kita perhatikan, perbedaan antara bentuk pasif pada ‘simple present’ dengan ‘simple past’ terletak pada bentuk ‘be’-nya. Maka kita harus benar-benar memahami bentuk ‘be’ setiap ‘tenses’ agar bisa membuat kalimat pasif dengan tepat.

Berikut ini adalah bentuk-bentuk ‘be’ dengan contoh kata kerja ‘do’ (mengerjakan):

Tense/Verb form                 Active Voice                              Passive Voice****

Simple Present                      does                                                is done
Present Continuous            am/is/are doing                        am/is/are being done
Simple Past                             did                                                   was done
Past Continuous                   was/were doing                         was/were being done
Present Perfect                     has/have done                           has/have been done
Past Perfect                            had done                                       had been done
Future                                      will do                                            will be done
Conditional                            would do                                       would be done
Perfect Conditional             would have done                       would have been done
Present Infinitive                 to do                                               to be done
Perfect Infinitive                  to have done                               to have been done
Gerund                                      doing                                              being done
Perfect Gerund                      having done                                 having been done
Modal                                        can/may/must do                     can/may/must be done

B. Beberapa hal yang harus diperhatikan:

1. Jika menggunakan kata ganti (pronoun) sebagai subyek/obyek, kata ganti harus disesuaikan:

  • Active   : I am calling him.
  • Passive : He is being called by me. (bukan Him is called by I)
  • Active   : We saw them.
  • Passive : They were seen by us. (bukanUs were seen by they)

2. Jika ‘pelaku’ dalam kalimat adalah seseorang (someone)/setiap orang (everyone), biasanya ‘by someone/everyone’ pada kalimat pasif tidak disebutkan:

  • Active   : Someone stole Rina’s bike.
  • Passive : Rina’s bike was stolen.
  • Active   : Everyone painted the building.
  • Passive : The building was painted.

3. Dalam percakapan sehari-hari, kata ‘get’ lebih sering digunakan daripada kata ‘be’:

  • The eggs got (=were) broken.
  • You’ll get (=be) punished if you don’t do your task.

4. Kita harus menggunakan bentuk pasif jika kita tidak tahu (pasti) siapa yang melakukan suatu pekerjaan/tindakan:

  • The minister was murdered.
  • My car has been moved.
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  1. Ping-balik: Relative Clause | Paul's Blog

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